Tuesday, June 20, 2017



Evolution and natural theology

by Kirby, W. F. (William Forsell), 1844-1912
Published 1883


"I cannot but feel surprised that a theory -which thus teaches us humility for the past, faith in the present, and hope for the future, should have been regarded as opposed to the principles of Christianity, or the interests of true religion." 
LUBBOCK'S "Prehistoric Times," 2nd edition, p. 581.

THE Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings, more familiarly known as the Theory of the Origin of Species, has continued to attract an increasing amount of public attention, ever since 1 859, when Darwin published his great work on the subject.

Although the principle of Evolution was not new, yet the crude and unscientific speculations of the earlier Evolutionists had failed to produce any deep or permanent impression on either the scientific or the popular mind ; and it was left for Darwin and Wallace to promulgate a theory which could be seen to be both scientifically probable, and easily intelligible, and capable of accounting for a great number of familiar facts which had previously been regarded as lying almost beyond the domain of science, and therefore as incapable of explanation.

It is universally acknowledged that no one can read one of Darwin's elaborate works on this subject, without admiring the great amount of learning and industry displayed in the marvellous array of facts collected from every conceivable source, which are brought forward to illustrate even the most trifling point under discussion.

The literature of the subject has now become very extensive, and Darwin's views are accepted, with more or less reservation, by nearly all scientific men, as a key to the mysteries of Nature. Among the supporters of Evolution may be found men of every shade of opinion, from Herbert Spencer, who asserts that Atheism, Pantheism and Theism are all equally untenable, to St. George Mivart, who attempts to show that the teachings of the Fathers of the Church are in accordance with Evolution.

But although the main principle of Evolution is now conceded by most naturalists, there is a great difference of opinion on matters of detail, and the subject is evidently still in its infancy. It must not be supposed that Darwin's views, comprehensive and valuable as they are, are by any means final ; and every general work on Evolution attempts to develop the subject more extensively, or to throw light on certain questions which still remain obscure.

It is often as important to point out the fallacies in the conclusions of others, as to state a new truth ; for in science, as in arithmetic, a mistake in one figure will often affect the whole sum. There is little doubt that Evolution is still far from presenting the aspect which it will ultimately assume in the science of the future.

The religious aspects of Evolution, though frequently discussed, are still far from having received a satisfactory solution. One reason may be that pure science resembles pure mathematics in only being able to deal with subjects which fall directly within its grasp.

Pure science will not conduct us far if the theological aspect of a theory has to be considered ; for religious questions depend upon the constitution of the human mind, and we cannot call in science to enable us to analyse our own minds by their own powers from any really independent or scientifically unexceptionable standpoint.

Nevertheless, a man is not justified in rejecting Religion, because (even after eliminating absurd or contradictory dogmas, with nothing to support them but authority) it presents him with insoluble enigmas if argued out by strict logic. .

A physiologist might as well refuse food as long as any problem connected with the process of x Introduction. digestion remained unsolved; or a philosopher might as well refuse to eat, because he admits himself to be incapable of proving either his own existence or that of his dinner, it is perhaps unnecessary to add that the above remarks are intended to apply to Religion in the abstract, quite independently of any system of dogmatic theology.

As, however, the bias of an author must affect his whole work, it may be stated that the existence and perfection of the Deity are here assumed from the outset, without any discussion of evidences, which would lead us too far from our main object.

The chief points which we have endeavoured to establish are : (1) the worthlessness of the opinions of antiquity on matters of natural science ; (2) the great superiority from a scientific point of view, as well as in physical and moral evidence, of the Theory of Evolution over that of Special Creation; and (3) that Evolution is perfectly consistent with an enlightened Theism.

Some of the supporters of Evolution claim for it that it is wholly opposed to the belief in a God, and many of its opponents brand it as thoroughly Atheistic in its tendencies. We shall attempt to show that this is not the case : but that as the Theory of Special Creation has become scientifically untenable, it is this theory, and not that of Evolution, which is positively Atheistic in its tendencies.

The principles of Evolution may be traced throughout every branch of Science without exception ; but we are here principally concerned with that branch of the subject known as the Origin of Species, and our illustrations are taken chiefly from Zoology. The conclusions of previous authors (including those of Darwin himself) are freely criticised ; and it is possible that new light may be found to be thrown on certain phases of the subject.

There is no real conflict between Religion and Science ; it is only the worn-out theological beliefs of past ages which conflict with the latter, when the increased light of the present age demonstrates them to be false, or even immoral. Religion and Science both lead us on to the discovery of higher and higher truths ; and the progress of truth is the advancement of the human race on the path which God has indicated by science and history as that by which it is His intention ultimately to lead all living beings, whether regarded as species or individuals, to Himself.

The interests of truth are in all cases best promoted by the freest discussion ; and it is hoped that the xii Introduction. present attempt to throw light on some of the important religious and scientific questions of the day, from a somewhat unusual standpoint, may not be considered altogether uninteresting




The Universe as it appeared to the Ancients Finite Nature of the Ancient Gods Zeus Othin Elohim Indra The Universe as it appears to the Moderns Progress of Science Progress of Religion- ... 1 NOTES. The Sacrifice of Serpents Buddhism God as the Spiritual Sun . . . 13

Difference between Ancient and Modern Thought Sporadic Nature of the Highest Genius Ancient Opinions on Matters of Physical Science Worthless Theory of Special Creation necessarily held by the Ancients Miracles Universality of Natural Law The Witch Mania and its Effects . 15

Infinite Change throughout the Universe Evolution an Established Principle in all Sciences Astronomy Philology Analogy between Philological and Biological Evolution 30 xiv Contents.

The System of Nature Speculations of the Earlier Evolutionists Theory of Degradation Inspiration necessarily Opposed to Infallibility Importance of Correct Views of Modern Science and Ancient Literature . . .41 NOTE. The Book of Genesis . ,49

Sketch of the Theory of Natural Selection Objections Theological Objections Origin of Man Beauty and Design in Nature Mivart Strictures on Darwinism Sense-Organs Origin of Species not always Gradual Limits of Variability Absence of Transitional Forms Species and Races Bree's Objections to Darwinism . 50

Vital Energy Its Limits Variations in Offspring of the same Parents Reversion Hybrids and Mongrels Effects of Domestication on Animals . . . .69

Probable Unity of Matter Unity of Structure throughout Organic Nature Somites of Annulosa Neck of Vertebrata Rudimentary Organs Organs of the Senses Homology of the Sexes Homology only to be explained by Evolution

Importance of Embryological Characters in Classification Close Resemblance of Early Stages of Embryos Rudimentary Organs in the Embryo Ancestral Characters Gradually Transferred to Embryo Importance of this Principle 95 Contents. xv

PAGE Traditions of tlie Deluge Islands Sea Barriers Local Variations in Size of Animals America and the Old World Australia Introduced Species American Waterweed Madagascar The Canaries and the East Indies 103

Effects of Domestication Sheep Pigeons Explanations on the Theory of Special Creation Domestication in Ancient Times Importance of Variation to Man . 119

Origin of Life a Mystery Biassed Theories Prochronism . Voltaire's Theory of Fossils Sir W. Thomson's Meteoric Theory Origin of Mundane Life probably Terrestrial Lowest Living Organisms Ultimate Origin of Life . .126

Succession of Forms Theory of Direct Creation Subversive of the Argument from Design Immutability and Universality of the Laws of Nature Wallace's View of the Origin of Man Absolute and Relative Perfection Progress of Vertebrate Animals Man Geologically Analogous to a Class Extinction of Species Small Species usually Survive Larger Apparent Exceptions Social Hymenoptera Intelligence of Vertebrate Animals The Dog Indestructibility of Life Preexistence and Successive Existences . 137 xvi Contents.

PAGE Necessity of Destruction Man's Influence Primeval State of the Earth Glacial Periods Changes of Climate Influence of Pestilence Eras of Rest State of Ice- land No Real Destruction . .158

Alternation of Races Children and Savages Men only Equal Theoretically Beliefs dependent on Race and Geographical Distribution All Religions of Divine Origin Missionaries Hereditary Influences Proportion of the Sexes Alleged Degeneracy of Man The Ancient Athenians Celibacy in the Church Cruelty and Immorality of the Ancients Re-action in Modern Times 167 NOTES. Religion of the Semites and Aryans Mohammadanism . .199

Balance of Nature Strength of Small Animals Limits of Variation Of Multiplication Heavy Fruits Relative Perfection of the Universe . . 201


BobFromBrockley: Guest post: Islam and the left – against secular f...

BobFromBrockley: Guest post: Islam and the left – against secular f...: This is a guest post by Ali H "I am going to give you such a weapon that the police and the army will not be able to stand against it....

But, as far as I know, the only significant Western Marxist or anarchist who has really expressed interest in the radical content of Islamic thought is the rather marginal Peter Lamborn Wilson (aka Hakim Bey), although a handful of bloggers, such as Eugene Plawiuk and the convert Yakoub Islam, have done so.

BobFromBrockley: The ethics of punching fascists, continued

BobFromBrockley: The ethics of punching fascists, continued: Some women who punched fascists, Yugoslavia, 1943 I wrote four very short throwaway posts on punching fascists these last few weeks, si...

Monday, May 29, 2017

Our country: its possible future and its present crisis

“IN 'OUR COUNTRY’ published by the American Home Missionary Society,
Rev. Josiah Strong has given us a book whose
value lies in its facts and in the rare ability with which the
author has gathered and verified them. In successive chapters
he has sketched the spirit of the times, the National resources
and Western supremacy. He has depicted the perils from im-
migration, from Romanism, Mormonism, intemperance, social-
ism and wealth; the dangers from urban population and the
exhaustion of the public lands. His final chapter on ' Money
and the Kingdom ' reveals the purpose of the book, which is to
point Christians of this country to the present time as a critical
period in Christ's Kingdom, and to urge upon them the conse-
cration of their wealth to the cause of the Redeemer. The
book ought to be in the hands of every patriot in the land as a
thesaurus of important material facts and as an incentive to
stand on higher grounds of civic and religious duty."
The  Advance.

With an Introduction, by

THIS Volume was prepared for the American Home
Missionary Society by REV. JOSIAH STRONG, D.D., then its
representative for the work of Home Missions in Ohio,.
As will be seen at a glance, its main purpose is to lay
before the intelligent Christian people of our country
facts and arguments showing the imperative need of
Home Missionary work for the evangelization of the
land, the encouragements to such effort, and the danger
of neglecting it.

Copies for perusal and distribution can be obtained
from the publishers, The Baker & Taylor Co., No. 9
Bond Street, New York. Fifty cents in cloth binding
or Twenty-five cents in paper.

Copyrighted by the
SIXTY years ago the American Home Missionary Society was
organized to assist congregations that are unable to support the
It began its work near the commencement of that great
“world-movement" described in this volume. In 1826, when
Western New York was a frontier region, two -thirds of its
missionaries were found in this State.
Now they are laboring in nearly every State and Territory of
the Union. Over 1,000 are in States south and west of New
York. Who can estimate the influence they are exerting in
building up the new communities on Christian foundations?
Some idea of the magnitude and scope of the Society's work
may be gained from the following facts.
In sixty -one year’s its missionaries have organized 4,951
churches and brought 2,430 to self-support. They have gathered
into these churches 345, 973 members. Cash receipts, $11,586,-
During the sixty -first year 1,571 missionaries ministered to
3,063 congregations and 129,350 Sunday-school scholars;
organizing 135 new churches and 323 new Sunday-schools
and receiving into the churches 10,031 members.
Cash receipts, $482,979,60.
Never before were the calls for Home Missionary work so
loud. Never were the doors so wide open in all parts of the
land. Never were our institutions in greater peril. Head in
this book of these perils and their remedy. Then let every
patriot and Christian ask if he is not responsible for applying
this remedy. The average cost to this Society for each of its
missionaries is $471 per year.
Are there not many who will each contribute enough to sup-
port at least one such Christian worker ?


It is worthy of note that almost all the thinking which think-
ing men have given to the subject for the last fifty years has
been in the line of the leading idea which this volume enforces
the idea of crisis in the destiny of this country, and through
it in the destiny, of the world. The common sense of men
puts into homely phrase the great principles which underlie
great enterprises. One such phrase lies under the Christian
civilization of our land. It is " the nick of time." The pres-
ent hour is, and always has been, " the nick of time" in our
history. The principle which underlies all probationary ex-
perience comes to view in organized society with more stu-
pendous import than in individual destiny. This book puts
the evidence of that in a form of cumulative force which is

Fifty years ago our watchful fathers discerned it in their
forecast of the future of the Republic. The wisest among
them even then began to doubt how long the original stock of
American society could bear the interfusion of elements alien
to our history and to the faith of our ancestry. The conviction
was then often expressed that the case was hopeless

Success in the work of the world's conversion has, with
rare exceptions, followed the lines of human growth and pro-
spective greatness. But a single exception occurs to one's
memory that of the Hawaiian Islands. Seldom has a nation
been converted to Christ, only to die. The general law has
been that Christianity should seat itself in the great metropoli-
tan centers of population and of civilized progress. It has
allied itself with the most virile races. It has taken possession
of the most vigorous and enterprising nations. The coloniz-
ing races and nations have been its favorites. It has aban-
doned the dying for the nascent languages. Its affinities have
always been for the youthful, the forceful, the progressive,
the aspiring in human character, and for that stock of mind
from which such character springs. By natural sequence, tne
localities where those elements of powerful manhood are, or
are to be, in most vigorous development, have been the strategic
points of which our religion has taken possession as by a
masterly military genius.

I. Conflict of Romanism with the fundamental principles of our
government ; liberty of conscience ; free speech, and a free press ;
free schools ; loyalty to the Constitution and loyalty to the Pope.
2. Attitude toward our free institutions. 3. Rapid growth of Roman-
ism in the United States, especially in the West. P. 46.

Polygamy not an essential part of Mormonism; might be de-
stroyed without weakening the system. Strength lies in ecclesiastical
despotism. Mormon designs. The remedy. P. 59.

I. The progress of civilization renders men the easier victims of
intemperance. Civilization must destroy the liquor traffic, or be de-
stroyed by it. The problem serious enough in the East. What of
the West, where the relative power of the saloon is two-and-one-half
times greater?
II. The liquor power; wealth; organization; aims; methods.
Influence in Rocky Mountains and beyond. P. 68.

The Socialistic Labor Party and the International Working-men's
Association. Teachings. Numbers. Conditions favorable to growth :
1. Immigration ; 2. Increasing Individualism;
3. Prevalence of skepticism ; 4. Development of classes
5. Growing discontent. Modern enginery of destruction.
Conditions at the West peculiarly favorable to the growth of Socialism. P. 85.

Comparative statement of wealth. Rate of increase. Advantages
over Europe. Dangers: 1. Mammonism; 2. Materialism;
3. Luxuriousness ; 4. Congestion of wealth. All these dangers
greater at the West than at the East. P. 1*2.

Reasons why the world's future is to be shaped by the Anglo-
Saxon. The United States to be the seat of his power. The most
marked characteristics of the Anglo-Saxon race are here being empha-
sized, and the race schooled for the competition with other races,
which will begin as soon as the pressure of population on the means
of support is felt in the United States. The result of that competi-
tion. The responsibility of this generation. P. 159.

Christianize the immigrant and he will be easily
Americanized. Christianity is the solvent of all race
antipathies. Give the Romanist a pure gospel and he
will cease to be a Romanist. It has already been shown
that Christian education will solve the Mormon prob-
lem. The temperance reform, like all others which de-
pend on popular agitation, must have money, and i*
being retarded by the lack of it. Concerning the rem-
edy for socialism, accept the opinion of an economist
who has made it a subject of special study. Says Prof.
Ely : " It is an undoubted fact that modern socialism
of the worst type is spreading to an alarming extent
among our laboring classes, both foreign and native. I
think the danger is of such a character as should arouse
the Christian people of this country to most earnest
efforts for the evangelization of the poorer classes,
particularly in large cities. What is needed is Chris-
tianity, and the Christian church can do far more than
political economists toward a reconciliation of social
classes. The church's remedy for social discontent and
dynamite bombs is Christianity as taught in the New
Testament. Now in all this you will find nothing new.
It is only significant in this regard : others have come
to these conclusions from the study of the Bible ; from
a totally different starting point, from the study of
Political economy, I have come to the same goal."*

But the acceptance of the Christian doctrine con-
cerning property would have a direct, as well as indi-
rect, influence on socialism. Let us, therefore, dwell
a moment on the subject.

In the popular ferment, a hundred years ago, which
culminated in the French ^Revolution, the demand was
for equal rights and the watchword was Liberty. There
is a popular ferment throughout Europe to-day which
is more universal and extends to the United States.
The popular demand now is equality of condition, and
the watchword is Property a cry the meaning of
which the dullest and most earthly can understand.
This movement, which is steadily gathering force, re-
sults from the two most striking facts of the Nineteenth
century : first, the general diffusion of knowledge
through the press, which has wonderfully multiplied
wants up and down the entire social scale ; and, sec-
ond, the creation of immense wealth by means of the
steam engine. But this wealth, which is necessary to
the satisfaction of these wants, has been massed. In a
word, the difficulty is knowledge multiplied and popu-
larized, and wealth multiplied and centralized.

The right distribution of property, which is the ker-
nel of the social question, is the great problem of our
civilization ; and it may well be doubted whether the
true solution will be found until the church accepts,
both in doctrine and practice, the teaching of God's
"Word touching possessions. For the church is re-
sponsible for public opinion on all moral questions, and
no great question of rights can be settled for the world
until Christian men come into right relations with it.

The inexorable law of our present industrial system
is that the cost of subsistence determines the rate of
wages. This makes no provision for the higher wants
of increasing intelligence, and therefore insures an in-
creasing popular discontent. It would seem that the
solution of the great difficulties between capital and
labor must be found in some form of co-operation by
which the workman will be admitted to a just share in
the profits of his labor. Professor Cairns, who is con-
sidered one of the greatest economists England has
produced, believes that co-operative production affords
the laboring classes " the sole means of escape from a
harsh and hopeless destiny" (" Leading Principles," p.
338). Referring to several thousand co-operative so-
cieties in England, having some millions of capital,
Thomas Hughes says : " I still look to this movement
as the best hope for England and other lands." The
eminent statistician, Carroll D. Wright, the head of
the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor, re-
ferring to the duty of the rich manufacturer to regard
himself as " an instrument of God for the upbuilding
of the race," and the promotion of the highest welfare
of those in his employ, says : " This may sound like
sentiment. I am willing to call it sentiment ; but I
know it means the best material prosperity, and that
every employer who has been guided by such senti-
ments has been rewarded two-fold ; first, in witnessing
the wonderful improvement of his people, and, second,
in seeing his dividends increase, and the wages of ins
operatives increase with his dividends. The factory
system of the future will be run on this basis. The
instances of such are multiplying rapidly now." Man-
ifestly, the acceptance on the part of Christian capital-
ists of the scriptural doctrine of possessions would
greatly facilitate the introduction of co-operation or
any other plan which promised justice to the work-

The Christian man who is not willing to make the
largest profits which an honest regard for the laws of
trade permits is a rare man. But the laws of trade
permit much that the laws of God do not permit.
Many transactions are commercially honest which ax>
not righteous. If, now, a man accepts the truth that
his possessions are a trust to be administered for God's
glory, he will not consent to increase them by any un-
righteous means. And since justice and righteousness,
like honesty, will prove to be the best policy, the ac-
ceptance on the part of Christian men of a thoroughly
righteous plan of co-operation between capital and la-
bor would eventually compel its general acceptance.
Let Christian men gain a correct conception of their
relations to their possessions, let them accept the duty
of Christian stewardship, and it would command their
getting as well as their spending. There would be no
motive to drive a sharp bargain. It would purify
trade. It would mediate between capital and labor.
It would destroy the foundation on which the rising
structure of socialism rests. It would cut one of the
principal roots of popular unbelief ; for extended in-
quiry in Cincinnati elicited the almost unanimous re-
sponse that the reason workingmen neglect the
churches is that there are on the church rolls the
names of employers who wrong their employes.

The acceptance of the true principle of Christian
giving is urged upon us by the fact that money is
power, which is needed everywhere for elevating and
saving men. It is further urged upon us by the fact
that only such a view of possessions will save us from
the great and imminent perils of wealth. God might
have sent his angels to sing his gospel through the
world, or he might have written it on the sky, and
made the clouds his messengers ; but we need to bear
the responsibility of publishing that gospel. He might
mak^ the safe of every benevolent society a gold mine
as unfailing as the widow's cruse of oil ; but we need
to give that gold. The tendency of human nature, in-
tensified by our commercial activity, is to make the life
a whirlpool a great maelstrom which draws every-
thing into itself. "What is needed to-day is a grand re-
versal of the movement, a transformation of the life
into a fountain. And in an exceptional degree is this
the need of Anglo-Saxons. Their strong love of lib-
erty, and their acquisitiveness, afford a powerful temp-
tation to offer some substitute for self-abnegation.
We would call no man master. We must take Christ
as master. We would possess all things ; we must
surrender all things.

One of the grave problems before us is how to make
great material prosperity conduce to individual 
advancement. The severest poverty is unfavorable to
morality. Up to a certain point increase of property
serves to elevate man morally and intellectually, while
it improves him physically. But, as nations grow rich,
they are prone to become self-indulgent, effeminate,
immoral. The physical nature becomes less robust,
the intellectual nature less vigorous, the moral less
pure. The pampered civilizations of old had to be re-
invigorated, from time to time, with fresh infusions of
barbaric blood a remedy no longer available. If we
cannot find in Christianity a remedy or preventive, our
Christian civilization and the world itself is a failure;
and our rapidly increasing wealth, like the 
"cankered heaps of strange-achieved gold," 
will curse us unto destruction.



I came across this interesting text by an American Evangelical Alliance, while presumably Baptist, it was non sectarian in support of American Protestant Sects,including the Mormons if they were reformed.        

America is a self realization of two forces, those of the liberal enlightenment, Freemasonry and its bourgeois values were perfectly crafted for both colonial and post colonial America. 
It represents both the left and the right, the anarchist artisan, and the libertarian self employed owner, the artisan and the self employed both could become at anytime, a boss or a worker, until the rise of industrialization immediately before, during and after the Civil War then the artisanal nature of America changed.

The Knights of St. Crispin are an excellent example of how the first Capitalist Industrial War, the American Civil War, changed the nature of shoe making. The Knights were founded in the 18th century as a craft guild association and proto union, for shoemakers. At that time in North America, and into the middle of the 19th century, shoe making like many crafts were labour intensive, and involved the whole family.  

The Knights were an East Coast phenomena in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts,Maine, into the Maritimes, such as New Brunswick and Quebec in Canada. 

The Knights originated in the UK and their rites and rituals were brought to North America through New Brunswick. Guild Associations are an ancient tradition among artisans and craftsmen. Like a union they determine the piece work wages that they will make as well as the price set for the sale of the finished product. In other words they controlled the means of production directly. 

In this they were no different then their predecessors in the weaving trades, who were being transformed into mass workers in factories in Europe. Not all trades suffered mass industrialization as early and as totally as the Weavers did. And so various guild associations carried on like the Knights of St. Crispin who originated in the late medieval period. 

Shoemaking then was a family affair, and in America a family would also be a land owner and a sharer in the commonwealth of the community , such as grazing lands, since land was so freely available more so than in Europe. This allowed the family to produce their own food and shelter, and to practice their craft and trade as well. This required people to be living in towns, villages and cities.

In shoemaking the father did the heavy work with the hard leather, and hammering of soles,
the mother cut and fashioned the shoe and the children sewed with their small hands, a practice still conducted today in developing countries that used child labour. The father also sewed, especially the heavy awl work of stitching.  All this was done to Knights standards,
if a shoemaker was found to have sold cheap or below standards, fines would be applied as has been the guild tradition for thousands of years.

There were weavers in America too at this time but they too like the shoemakers would become extinct crafts as industrialization created mass workers for the war effort. A decline in active members of the Knights of St. Crispin can be seen as steady for a decade prior to the Civil War, by the end of the Civil War the Knights only existed in Quebec and New Brunswick. In the United States they were replaced with mass production of shoes for the metropoles, and for the war. The workers were women and children in these factories, leaving the men to find a different trade, or work elsewhere, or farm. 

In the North the Civil War produced a manufacturing industry and a new capitalist class,
it also required masses of workers, these came from immigration even more so than from the freed slaves of the South. Chicago is a good example of the integration that mass production created, in the ghettos around the packing plants were German, Polish and Ukrainian immigrants who arrived at the same time as many of the Black families coming to join their relatives in Chicago where they heard there were jobs to be had.  After the Civil War the abattoirs of Chicago fed the nation and its commodities exchange ruled the farmers of America. 

Chicago was America's mass industrialized city, it has long been the home to the commodity exchange, especially in Cattle, and it was connect to Canada via Winnipeg which was an equivalent boom town of banks, railroads, grains and beef. Americas farmers were beholding to Chicago in many ways, those folks who earlier had been self employed now moved off the land and into the city. That land became privatized, parceled out and bought by farmers. The farmers traded their cattle in Chicago, they got feed, fertilizer and most importantly farm implements 

Chicago had a booming farm equipment manufacturing industry, employing those former 
shoemakers, and other small craftsmen, as well as immigrants. working in these farm equipment plants.  One of those plants would become the focus of the International Workingmen's Association, the Knights of Labour, and members of the Socialist Labour Party. It was the McCormick Works and a year after the publication of this pamphlet, and the year was 1886, the fight was for the eight hour day, and the resulting strike and protest lead the famous Haymarket Riot. 

It is in this time of rapid capitalist growth in America that the Evangelical movement sees 
the need for another Home Missionary Movement to combat Catholicism brought in by the Immigrants from Europe. Conversion for heathen and papist was the cry. As it had been in 1826.

At that time America faced its first anti masonic purge and Baptist Revivalism which ended up in the Know Nothing Party. The Baptist revival was an evangelical mass movement 
to confirm America as a Protestant Nation, the first ever 'pure Aryan' Protestant nation.
Unlike Europe where all nations were Catholic and then converted to Protestantism.

Despite their roots in European culture, what had been the Anabaptist religious movement changed when it arrived in America, it dropped Ana, and simply became Baptist. And it was 
generic at that, anyone could call themselves Baptist, even Presbyterians. The Anabaptists that remained were the collectivist cults, like Mennonites, Hutterites, Amish, Dukhbour.

America created modern Protestant Evangelicalism and modern Protestantism as well as allowing for all kinds of cults and sects Christian or otherwise.  Why cults, because they believed in the end times, the rapture, what is now mainstream for the 700 Club was then
cultic beliefs which meant persecution.

The Seventh-day Adventist Church is the largest of several Adventist groups which arose from the Millerite movement of the 1840s in upstate New York, a phase of the Second Great AwakeningWilliam Miller predicted on the basis of Daniel 8:14–16 and the "day-year principle" that Jesus Christ would return to Earth between the spring of 1843 and the spring of 1844. In the summer of 1844, Millerites came to believe that Jesus would return on October 22, 1844, understood to be the biblical Day of Atonement for that year. When this did not happen (an event known as the "Great Disappointment"), most of his followers disbanded and returned to their original churches.

New York State, was home to many of the early alternative sects, cults of Christianity and of Spiritualists and Soothsayers, Theosophists to Freemasons, Odd Fellows and other fraternal orders and to Nativist Sects.

The  communistic protestants the Shakers were there as was the town of Lilydale full of Spiritualist communing with dead It was in this spiritual milieu that Joseph Smith traveled in before his revelation and creation of the Mormon Church, with rites and rituals he 'borrowed' from Freemasonry.

One of the newest forms of Protestantism that caught in America more so than even in its native England, was Millenarism which has existed since the time of the Old Testament if not even earlier. But we can document these movements, and they occur as features of 
End Times, Apocalyptic cults believing in the end of the world. In America these cults became so called  Christian sects like the Seventh Day Adventists and the Jehovah Witness movement. While they originate in Protestantism, they are not Christian, they are cultic interpretations of the bible to prove their predictions. It is still with us today and it calls itself the Moral Majority.

Ironically the author of this propaganda pamphlet would be considered a socialist heretic to today's Moral Majority and other End Times types of Evangelists. They would not even recognize his Aryan Anglo Saxon as being the same as their Nativist White Nationalism.

There are similarities in this work with today's White Nationalism, it reference to Aryan and Anglo Saxonism as Aryan. Aryan as Christian, and that means White people. There are no Negros in this book and there are no Red Men, not even the white fraternity by that name. 

This is the empty frontier of America, of FJ Turner, no Indians, and of course no freed or runaway slaves. There is lots of land, minerals, lumber, all free for the taking. It is the West that our author wants to fill with evangelical Aryan Christians. No others need apply especially not immigrants 

So along with missing people of Afro American descent or First Nations, also the with the immigrant, they must be the right kind of White People, not Catholic, not socialist or union trouble makers, nor rampant capitalists.

Our author would be astonished to learn that today his American counterpart scoffs at the idea socialism in America. And yet here it is, of course like today's Aryan Nationalist Nativist it is not natural or homegrown, it is again blamed on the immigrant, whether from Canada or Europe, just like Catholicism, is not considered native to America, despite the founding of North America by the French and Jesuits. 

Again like populist politicians who decry the rich and powerful, like Trump or the Kingfisher, even Teddy Roosevelt, there belief is in Aryan idealism, just as the author equates as did Roosevelt, Aryanism with Americanism with Manliness, Strength, and Moral Purity. Of course such a being, a person or a nation then is entitled to rule over the world.

But, as nations grow rich,they are prone to become self-indulgent, effeminate,immoral. The physical nature becomes less robust, the intellectual nature less vigorous, the moral less pure. The pampered civilizations of old had to be re-invigorated, from time to time, with fresh infusions of barbaric blood a remedy no longer available. If we cannot find in Christianity a remedy or preventive, ourChristian civilization and the world itself is a failure;and our rapidly increasing wealth, like the "cankered heaps of strange-achieved gold," will curse us unto destruction.

Teddy Roosevelt could have said this so could Steve Bannon. In fact you probably have read the same statements in any number of right wing commentaries published by such intellectual light weight pundits as Bannon and ilk.

Finally lets discuss the most obvious statement, the idea of Crisis. What crisis, the author in the end attests it is one of Aryan or Christian civilization the two being equivalent. A multicultural America is the bugaboo of the assimilationist, scratch the surface and you find a nativist Aryan. 

The real crisis as it is today, is the changing nature of bourgeois capitalist society. As it was then it is today, society is going through major changes at all levels, including the transformation of the means of production into robotics, cybernetics and AI. It means capitalism itself is transforming through technological change, not just to a gig economy but eventually a return to artisanal production at home using new technologies like 3D printing.

As well the collapsing nature of capitalism as well as its positivist transformations, it remains in permanent crisis, why in order to sell weapons, oil, etc. Since the turn of last century the Barbarism of capitalism that we first saw in the American Civil War created the First and Second World Wars, interrupted by two revolutions the Russian and Spanish.

Since then there has been no real post war peace, war continued on the Korean Peninsula,
unresolved it was the beginning of many failed missions by American Imperialism to dominate the Asia Pacific as well as Europe and the Middle East. Today North Korea is 
convenient scapegoat that loves the role and attention it merits 

After Korea it was Vietnam, picking up from the French who abandoned the struggle against
post war nationalism and anti-colonialism, something you would have thought America would champion, but this was the era of the Red Scare and the Cold War.

Cuba was subject to American Imperialism as well as Santa Domingo, whose general strike was viciously put down by American Troops. many of them black being asked to shoot 
unarmed protestors. 

As Michael Kidron wrote post modern Capitalism and its State are what Eisenhower called the Military Industrial Complex and what Kidron calls  the Permanent Arms Economy, as famed Canadian economist Kenneth Galbraith also discussed in his book and TV series
that came out at the same time in Seventies.

Kidron has been proven right by the continuous sale of weapons world wide, and it is these weapons that are the source of other crimes, in particular drug running, in order to pay for them. America  is the worlds largest gun runner, if its not creating wars, invasions it is selling weapons to those in conflict.

Its most recent sale to a client state, was over $100 million dollars to Saudi Arabia, for them to also gun run and to use against the Shia whom they are conducting an ethnic cleansing war in Yemen.

Wars in Iraq, Libya, Syria, Yemen, all caused by the USA in its so called war on Terror, which is just another name for gun running.

Today we face once again the choice Socialism for survival and sustainability, vs Barbarism.
The Barbarians are Aryan Nationalist White Nationalists America, Brit, Russian, French,etc etc Nationalists. Nationalism is Fascism.